Wednesday, August 31, 2011

[Palaeontology • 1993] Teilhardina brandti • North American euprimate (Omomyidae) from the Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum

Teilhardinabrandti, which was originally described as the earliest Teilhardina from North America (Gingerich, 1993)

Gingerich PD. 1993. Early Eocene Teilhardina brandti: oldestomomyid primate from North America. Contrib Mus Paleontol Univ Michigan. 28:321–326.: [PDF file]

2011. New fossils of the oldest North American euprimate Teilhardina brandti (Omomyidae) from the paleocene–eocene thermal maximum: DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.21579

[Palaeontology • 2008] Teilhardina magnoliana • Oldest N. American Primate & Mammalian biogeography during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

Teilhardina magnoliana, sp. nov. Reconstruction

Undoubted primates first appear almost synchronously in the fossil records of Asia, Europe, and North America. This temporal pattern has complicated efforts to reconstruct the early dispersal history of primates in relation to global climate change and eustatic fluctuations in sea level. Here, I describe fossils from the Tuscahoma Formation on the Gulf Coastal Plain of Mississippi documenting an anatomically primitive species of Teilhardina that is older than other North American and European primates. Consistent with its antiquity, a phylogenetic analysis of dental characters recognizes Teilhardina magnoliana, sp. nov., as the most basal member of this genus currently known from either North America or Europe. Its stratigraphic provenance demonstrates that primates originally colonized North America near the base of the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), but before an important fall in eustatic sea level. Correlation based on carbon isotope stratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy indicates that the earliest North American primates inhabited coastal regions of the continent for thousands of years before they were able to colonize the Rocky Mountain Interior. The transient provincialism displayed by early North American primates corresponds to similar biogeographic patterns noted among fossil plants. Decreased precipitation in the Rocky Mountain Interior during the early part of the PETM may have been an important factor in maintaining biotic provincialism within North America at this time. These results underscore the need to obtain multiple, geographically dispersed records bearing on significant macroevolutionary events such as the PETM.

Key words: Teilhardina Wasatchian dispersal phylogeny Omomyidae

Systematic Paleontology
Primates Linnaeus, 1758.
Omomyidae Trouessart, 1879.
Teilhardina Simpson, 1940.
Teilhardina magnoliana, sp. nov.

Etymology. For Mississippi, the Magnolia State.

Holotype. Carnegie Museum of Natural History (CM) 70435, an isolated left M2 (Fig. 1).
Type Locality. CM locality 517, uppermost part of the Tuscahoma Formation, Lauderdale County, MS.

Fig. 1. Composite partial dentition of Teilhardina magnoliana from the Tuscahoma Formation (earliest Eocene), Gulf Coastal Plain of Mississippi.

Beard, K.C. 2008. The oldest North American primate and mammalian biogeography during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (10): 3815. doi:10.1073/pnas.0710180105.

Pint-Sized Primates Were First in North America

[Palaeontology • 2006] Rapid Asia-Europe-North America geographic dispersal of earliest Eocene primate Teilhardina • during the PETM

Fig 1.(D) We hypothesize that Teilhardina dispersed through continuous forest from southern Asia to Europe and from nothern Europe to North America during the first 25 Kyr of the PETM.

True primates appeared suddenly on all three northern continents during the 100,000-yr-duration Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum at the beginning of the Eocene,55.5 mya. The simultaneous or nearly simultaneous appearance of euprimates on northern continents has been difficult to understand because the source area, immediate ancestors, and dispersal routes were all unknown. Now, omomyid haplorhine Teilhardina is known on all three continents in association with the carbon isotope excursion marking the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum. Relative position within the carbon isotope excursion indicates that Asian Teilhardina asiatica is oldest, European Teilhardina belgica is younger, and North American Teilhardina brandti and Teilhardina americana are, successively, youngest. Analysis of morphological characteristics of all four species supports an Asian origin and a westward Asia-to-Europe-to-North America dispersal for Teilhardina. High-resolution isotope stratigraphy indicates that this dispersal happened in an interval of 25,000 yr. Rapid geographic dispersal and morphological character evolution in Teilhardina reported here are consistent with rates observed in other contexts.

Key Words: carbon isotope excursion  euprimates  omomyids

Smith, T.; Rose, K.D.; Gingerich, P.D. 2006. "Rapid Asia-Europe-North America geographic dispersal of earliest Eocene primate Teilhardina during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (30): 11223. doi:10.1073/pnas.0511296103.

Tuesday, August 30, 2011

[Botany • 2006] Towards a Monophyletic Hoya (Marsdenieae, Apocynaceae)

The delimitation of the genus Hoya, with at least 200 species distributed from India and China to Australia, from its closest relatives in the Marsdenieae has long been problematic, precluding an understanding of the evolution and biogeography of the genus. Traditional circumscriptions of genera in the Hoya alliance have relied on features of the flower, but these overlap extensively between clades and may be evolutionarily labile. We obtained chloroplast DNA sequences to infer the phylogenetic relationships among a sample of 35 taxa of Hoya and 11 other genera in the tribe Marsdenieae, namely Absolmsia, Cionura, Dischidia, Dregea, Gongronema, Gunnessia, Madangia, Marsdenia, Micholitzia, Rhyssolobium, and Telosma. Trees were rooted with representatives of Asclepiadeae, Ceropegieae, Fockeeae, Periplocoideae, and Secamonoideae. Hoya and Dischidia form a monophyletic group, but the phylogenetic signal in the chloroplast data analyzed here was insufficient to statistically support the mutual monophyly of the two genera. A monophyletic Hoya, however, must include the monotypic Absolmsia, Madangia, and Micholitzia, a result congruent with their flower morphology. The data also identified several well supported groups within Hoya. The morphologically unusual Gunnessia belongs firmly in the Marsdenieae, but it is not close to Hoya and Dischidia.

KEYWORDS: chloroplast, flowers, Hoya, Marsdenieae, phylogeny, rbcL-atpB spacer, trnL region.

FIG. 1. Representative genera of Marsdenieae. A. Hoya macgillivrayi (Australia). B. Dischidia ovata (New Guinea). C. Micholitzia obcordata (Thailand, India, and southern China). D. Gunnessia pepo (Australia). E. Madangia inflata (New Guinea). F. Absolmsia spartioides (Borneo). Photographs: A, B, E by D. Liddle, C by D. Goyder, D by G. Sankowsky and F by T. Nyhuus.

Towards a Monophyletic Hoya (Marsdenieae, Apocynaceae): Inferences from the Chloroplast trnL Region and the rbcL-atpB Spacer
Authors: Wanntorp, Livia; Kocyan, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Ruurd; Renner, Susanne S.
Source: Systematic Botany. 31 (3). 586-596. [PDF file]

Monday, August 29, 2011

[Botany • 2009] Hoya persicinicoronaria • a new species (Apocynaceae) from Hainan, China

The new species Hoya persicinicoronaria S. Y. He & P. T. Li (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) is described and illustrated from Hainan, China. The morphology of the related species H. pottsii Traill and H. liangii Tsiang are compared to the new species, which differs in its indumentum, leaf arrangement, leaflet pattern, leaf shape, apex, and size, calyx shape, and corolla color.

Key words: Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, China, Hainan, Hoya, IUCN Red List.

Hoya persicinicoronaria (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a New Species from Hainan, China
Author(s) :Shao-yun He, Ping-tao Li, Jia-yi Lin, and Xiang-hui Yang
Source: Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature, 19(4):475-478. 2009.

[Botany • 2009] Hoya bawanglingensis • a new species of Hoya (Apocynaceae) from Hainan, China

A new species, Hoya bawanglingensis S. Y. He & P. T. Li (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), is described and illustrated from Hainan, China. The morphological characters of H. bawanglingensis and the related species H. pottsii Traill are compared. Hoya bawanglingensis differs in the pubescence of its young stems, both leaf surfaces, petioles, peduncles, pedicels, outer calyx lobes, and follicles. The corolla lobes are white with purple spots, and the corona is white with a purplish center.

Key words: Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, China, Hainan, Hoya, IUCN Red List.

A New Species of Hoya (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) from Hainan, China
Author(s) :Shao-yun He, Ping-tao Li, Jia-yi Lin, and Mei-ling Zeng
Source: Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature, 19(3):357-359. 2009.

[Botany • 2009] Hoya baishaensis • a new species (Apocynaceae) from Hainan, China

Hoya baishaensis S.Y. He & P.T. Li sp. nova (Apocynaceae) from Hainan, China is described and illustrated. The morphological characteristics of H. baishaensis and the fairly similar H. griffithii and H. radicalis are compared. Hoya baishaensis differs in its leaf shape, pedicel, calyx and corolla color.

Keywords: Apocynaceae, Hoya, new species, taxonomy

He, S. Y., X. Y. Zhuang, P. T. Li, J. Y. Lin, and M. Li. 2009. Hoya baishaensis (Apocynaceae), a new species from Hainan, China. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 46 (2):155–158.: [PDF file]

[Botany • 2010] Heterostemma xuansonense • new species of Heterostemma (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) from Vietnam

A new species in Apocynaceae, Heterostemma xuansonense T. B. Tran & Joo-Hwan Kim, is described from Vietnam; illustrations and a comparison with related species are also provided. Heterostemma xuansonense distinctly differs from H. grandiflorum Costantin by the flower color, the absence of a peduncle, and the size of the corona.

Keywords: Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Heterostemma, IUCN Red List, Phu Tho, Vietnam

A New Species of Heterostemma (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) from Vietnam
Author(s) :Tran The Bach and Kim Joo-Hwan
Source: Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature, 20(3):367-370. 2010.

[Botany • 2010] Heterostemma pingtaoi • new Heterostemma species (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) from Hainan, China

Heterostemma pingtaoi S. Y. He & J. Y. Lin (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) is described from Hainan Province, China. The new species is morphologically similar to H. oblongifolium Costantin in its leaf blade with an acute apex and rounded base. In comparison, H. pingtaoi differs from H. oblongifolium in its pubescent petioles (vs. glabrous), the leaves only to 7.3 cm long (vs. 7.5–14 cm), the five calyx glands (vs. 10), and the corolla externally
pubescent and yellow-green with mauve pubescence (vs. green and glabrous).

Key words: Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, China, Hainan, Heterostemma, IUCN Red List.

Heterostemma pingtaoi (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a New Species from Hainan, China

Tuesday, August 23, 2011

[Botany • 2010] ก้ามกุ้งภูวัว | Phyllagathis nanakorniana • new Phyllagathis (Melastomataceae) from Northeastern Thailand

Phyllagathis nanakorniana Wangwasit, Norsaengsri & Cellin.
Blumea 55 (3): 246. 2010.
วงศ์ Melastomataceae

วิสัย ไม้ล้มลุกขนาดเล็ก ไม่มีลำต้น มีเหง้าใต้ดิน เส้นผ่านศูนย์กลางประมาณ 2 ซม. มีใบเดียว รูปหัวใจกว้างหรือรูปคล้ายไต กว้าง 3.5-15 ซม. ยาว 2.7-12.5 ซม. ปลายใบแหลมมนหรือกว้างมน โคนใบรูปหัวใจลึกหรือกว้าง ขอบใบมีติ่งแหลมตื้นๆ แผ่นใบเกลี้ยง มีสีน้ำตาลแดงด้านล่าง เส้นแขนงใบ 7-11 เส้น ออกที่โคนใบ เส้นแขนงใบย่อยชัดเจน ก้านใบยาว 0.5-6.5 ซม. ดอกออกจากเหง้า มี 1-3 ช่อ ช่อดอกแบบวงแถวคู่ บางครั้งแยกแขนงเป็น 2 ช่อ ดอกจำนวนมาก ก้านช่อยาว 6-17 ซม. ใบประดับ 2 ใบ ยาว 1-1.5 มม. ฐานรองดอกรูปถ้วยสูงประมาณ 3 มม. เป็นเหลี่ยม ก้านดอกยาว 0.4-1 ซม. กลีบเลี้ยงหยักรูปสามเหลี่ยมขนาดเล็ก ยาว 0.2-0.3 มม. กลีบดอก 4-5 กลีบ รูปใข่ ยาว 5-6 มม. เกสรเพศผู้ 8-10 อัน เป็นหมัน 4-5 อัน ก้านชูอับเรณูยาวประมาณ 2 มม. อับเรณูยาวประมาณ 1 มม. มีรยางค์สั้นๆ ด้านหลัง เกสรเพศผู้อันที่เป็นหมันยาวกว่าเล็กน้อย รังไข่มี 4-5 ช่อง ก้านเกสรเพศเมียยาวประมาณ 2 มม. ยอดเกสรแผ่กว้าง ผลแบบแคปซูลกว้าง 2.5-3 มม สูงประมาณ 2 มม.

การกระจายพันธุ์ พืชถิ่นเดียวของไทย พบเฉพาะที่เขตรักษาพันธุ์สัตว์ป่าภูวัว จังหวัดหนองคาย แต่อาจพบในประเทศลาวฝั่งตรงข้ามจังหวัดหนองคาย ขึ้นตามหน้าผาหินทรายที่แสงแดดส่องถึงในป่าดิบแล้งใกล้สันเขา ระดับความสูง 200-350 เมตร

ก้ามกุ้งภูวัว Phyllagathis nanakorniana

ก้ามกุ้งภูวัว Phyllagathis nanakorniana Wangwasit, Norsaengsri & Cellin (Melastomataceae) 
ไม้ล้มลุกขนาดเล็ก พรรณไม้ถิ่นเดียวของไทย (endemic) 

ก้ามกุ้งภูวัว Phyllagathis nanakorniana
 พรรณไม้บนลานหิน : 

A new species of Phyllagathis (Melastomataceae), P. nanakorniana, from Thailand is described and illustrated from recently collected material. The morphological characteristics are discussed in view of a wider generic concept that allows the inclusion of P. nanakorniana in Phyllagathis. A key to the Thai species is provided.

Key words: Melastomataceae, Phyllagathis, Sonerileae

Fig. 1 Phyllagathis nanakorniana Wangwasit, Norsaengsri & Cellin.

Map 1 Distribution of Phyllagathis nanakorniana Wangwasit, Norsaengsri & Cellin.

Wangwasit, K., N. Cellinese and M. Norsaengsri. 2010. Phyllagathis nanakorniana (Melastomataceae), a new species from Thailand. Blumea. 55 (3): 246-248. [PDF File]

Plant of the month February, 2011: ก้ามกุ้งภูวัว Phyllagathis nanakorniana via

[Botany • 1997] สกุล ก้ามกุ้ง | new Phyllagathis (Melastomataceae) from Thailand • P. tuberosa comb. nov. & P. siamensis nom. nov.

Phyllagathis siamensis Cellinese & S. S. Renner, nom. nov.
Basionym: Tylanthera cordata Hansen, Nordic J. Bot. 9: 634. 1990.
TYPE: Thailand. Central: Sarika Falls at Nakhon Nayok, 300 m alt., 1968, Larsen et al. 3402 (holotype, AAU; isotypes, BK1R, C). The new name is necessary because the epithet is occupied by Phyllagathis cordata Ridley. Figure 2.

While revising the Melastomataceae for the Flora of Thailand, we discovered two new species of Sonerila, as well as the need for transferring two species of Tylanthera endemic to Thailand into Phyllagathis. Sonerila urceolata and S. loeiensis are endemic to the southeast and the northeast of Thailand, respectively. The first is allied to the widespread S. erecta Jack, from which it differs mainly in the strongly urceolate capsule and the sessile fruit placenta; the second is distinguished from other acaulescent species of Sonerila by its extremely longetiolate large leaves and long-pedunculate inflorescence. The new combinations, Phyllagathis tuberosa (Hansen) Cellinese & Renner and P. siamensis Cellinese & Renner nom. nov., are made because both taxa lie inside the morphologic and phylogenetic bounds of Phyllagathis

Phyllagathis tuberosa (Hansen) Cellinese & S. S. Renner, comb. nov.
Basionym: Tylanthera tuberosa Hansen, Nordic J. Bot. 9: 632. 1990.
TYPE: Thailand. Northern: Phitsanulok: Phu Mieng mountain, 700 m alt., July-Aug. 1966, Larsen et al. 1105 (holotype, AAU; isotypes, BKF, C). Figure 1.

Cellinese, N. and Renner, S. S. 1997. New Species and New Combinations in Sonerila and Phyllagathis (Melastomataceae) from Thailand

[Botany • 2009] Two new Sonerila from the Western Ghats, South India • Sonerila anaimudica & S. coriacea

Sonerila anaimudica Lundin & B. Nordenstam from Kerala
Vulnerable (VU), small succulent herb, and the usually single terminal flower has very obtuse or even retuse obovate petals with glandular margins.
S. coriacea Lundin & B. Nordenstam from Tamil Nadu
Endangered (EN) woody succulent herb with a coriaceous layer on the stems, coriaceous leaves, and showy racemose flowers.

The two new species Sonerila anaimudica Lundin & B. Nordenstam and S. coriacea Lundin & B. Nordenstam, from Kerala and Tamil Nadu, respectively, are recognized in connection with a taxonomic revision of the South Indian species of Sonerila Roxburgh (Melastomataceae). Descriptions, discussions, and illustrations are provided. Both species are endemic to the Western Ghats in South India. Sonerila anaimudica is a small succulent herb, and the usually single terminal flower has very obtuse or even retuse obovate petals with glandular margins. Sonerila coriacea is a somewhat woody succulent herb with a coriaceous layer on the stems, coriaceous leaves, and showy racemose flowers. Both species have restricted distribution and small populations and are regarded as Vulnerable (VU) and Endangered (EN), respectively, based on IUCN Red List criteria.

Keywords: IUCN Red List, Melastomataceae, Sonerila, South India, Western Ghats

Figure 1. Sonerila anaimudica Lundin & B. Nordenstam.

Figure 2. Sonerila coriacea Lundin & B. Nordenstam.

Lundin, R. and Nordenstam, B. 2009. Two New Species of Sonerila (Melastomataceae) from South India. Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature. 19(1):76-79. DOI:  10.3417/2004198

[Botany • 2000] Sonerila vatphouensis • new Sonerila (Melastomataceae) from Laos

Sonerila vatphouensis Munzinger & C.V. Martin

Sonerila vatphouensis (Melastomataceae), a new species from Laos. A new species of Sonerila, related to S. tuberosa based on its tubercules and foliar dimorphism, is described and illustrated. The new species has foliar glands, previously noted in the genus only from S. neodriessenioides. However, the foliar glands of Sonerila vatphouensis are oblong, as are those of the monotypic genus Stussenia, while those of Sonerila neodriessenioides are peltate.

KEY WORDS: Sonerila, Melastomataceae, Laos.

Munzinger, J., and Martin, C.V. 2000. Sonerila vatphouensis (Melastomataceae), nouvelle espece du Laos. Adansonia. 22 (2): 211-215.: